Mikhail Kalinin was a Soviet politician who served as the Chairman of the Central Executive Committee (effectively the head of state) of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. He was not associated with Spain. The phrase "HOMENTAGE a la U.R.S.S. 1937 CCCP" on a stamp related to the Russian involvement in the Spanish Civil War can be understood as a tribute or homage to the Soviet Union's participation in the conflict in 1937. Catálogo de los Sellos Locales de la Guerra Civil Española Tomo IV"
Denia, a coastal town located in the province of Alicante, Spain, had a significant role during the Spanish Civil War. The town witnessed several key events and changes as the conflict unfolded. Before the Civil War began in 1936, Denia, like much of Spain, was experiencing political and social tensions. The country was divided into various factions, including Republicans, who supported the democratically elected Second Spanish Republic, and Nationalists, who sought to overthrow the Republic and establish a military dictatorship under General Francisco Franco. When the Civil War erupted on July 17, 1936, Denia found itself in Republican-controlled territory. The Republicans, composed of various leftist groups, anarchists, and communists, took control of the town. They aimed to defend the Republic against the Nationalist uprising. Denia played a significant role as a strategic port during the conflict. It served as a supply point for Republican forces, receiving arms and provisions from foreign allies, particularly the Soviet Union. Additionally, the town's coastal location made it vulnerable to bombings and attacks from the sea. As the Civil War progressed, Denia faced multiple challenges, including air raids by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria, which supported Franco's Nationalist forces. The town experienced several bombardments, causing significant damage to its infrastructure and civilian population. In 1939, after almost three years of fighting, the Nationalists emerged victorious, and General Francisco Franco established a dictatorship that would last until his death in 1975. With the defeat of the Republicans, Denia fell under Nationalist control, and the town faced repression and purges as Franco's regime sought to eliminate any remaining opposition. During Franco's rule, Spain underwent a period of political repression and censorship, and Denia, like many other regions, was subject to strict control. Despite this, the town slowly rebuilt itself after the war and gradually recovered from the devastating effects of the conflict.